Reflective journal

Questions:
Reflective journal:
MODULE 2: DELIVERING YOUR MESSAGE
In this Module, you will focus on the importance of delivering your message in words, including how the characteristics of language interact in ways that can improve and diminish effective business communication. Language plays a significant role in how you perceive and interact with the world as well as how culture, language, education, gender, race, and ethnicity all influence this dynamic process. Through this Module, you will discover ways to avoid miscommunication and also identify constructive ways to deliver an accurate message to a targeted audience.
Do people use the same language in all settings and contexts? Your first answer may be “yes”, but try this test. For a couple of hours, or even a day, pay attention to how you speak, and how others speak: the words you say, how you say them, the pacing and timing used in each context. For example, at home in the morning, in the coffee shop before work or class, during a break at work with peers or a break between classes with classmates all count as contexts. Observe how and what language is used in each context and to what degree they are the same or different.


2.1 WHAT IS LANGUAGE?
Read: Management Communication: “Chapter 2: Delivering Your Message: Introduction” and “Section 1: What Is Language?”
Please read the introduction to “Chapter 2: Delivering Your Message” and “Section 1: What Is Language?” in their entirety. These readings discuss the importance of words in delivering your message in words and how language is a system of words: idea-conveying symbols ruled by syntax, semantics, and context – all of which require interpretation.


Journal: Complete the following exercise and add it to your reflective journal.
A3: From your viewpoint, how do you think thought influences the use of language? Provide evidence to support your view.


◦ [Optional] Listen: iTunes U: Miami Dade College: Irene Canel-Petersen and Yvette Lujan’s “Language and Meaning“ URL

Please scroll down the webpage and click on “View in iTunes” for “Language and Meaning (Part 1)” and “Language and Meaning (Part 2).” Then, listen to these entire lectures (approximately 39 minutes and 52 minutes, respectively) to gain an understanding of how meaning depends on language and context and the impact of language on meaning as well as meaning on communication.



◦ 2.2 MESSAGES URL

Watch: UpWrite Press’ “Four Message Types”



◦ Watch: Richard Levin and Mark Rosenthal’s “Articulating Your Message: Public Speaking vs. On-Camera Presentations” URL

Please watch these entire videos (approximately 7 minutes and 6 minutes, respectively) to discover another way to categorize messages and to connect the theories of message creation to a practical application: how business leaders craft messages to articulate stories that motivate and inspire.



Read: Management Communication: Chapter 2: Delivering Your Message: “Section 2: Messages”
Please read “Section 2: Messages” in its entirety. This section discusses categorizing messages based on their importance. It also introduces the five common elements in any message, some of which you will recognize from the discussion in Chapter 1 about communication models and all of which you will encounter later when you examine how a speech is organized.


Journal: Complete the following exercises and add them to your reflective journal.
A4: How does language affect self-concept? Explore and research your answer finding examples that can serve as case studies.
A5: Choose an article or opinion piece from a major newspaper or news Web site. Analyse the piece according to the five-part structure described in the readings. Does the headline serve as a good attention statement? Does the piece conclude with a sense of closure? How are the main points presented and supported?


2.3 PRINCIPLES OF VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Read: Management: Chapter 2: Delivering Your Message: “Section 3: Principles of Verbal Communication”
Please read “Section 3: Principles of Verbal Communication” in its entirety. This section goes deeper into the rules that govern language and then introduces the concept of language paradigms (premises that are taken as fact). It also explains how language is arbitrary, symbolic, and abstract as well as how it serves imperfectly to organize and classify reality.


◦ 2.4 LANGUAGE CAN BE AN OBSTACLE TO COMMUNICATION URL
Watch: TED Talks, Melissa Marshall “Talk nerdy to me”
Please watch the entire video dealing with overcoming technical language as an obstacle to clear communication.



Read: Management: Chapter 2: Delivering Your Message: “Section 4: Language Can Be an Obstacle to Communication”
Please read “Section 4: Language Can Be an Obstacle to Communication” in its entirety. This section discusses why clichés, jargon, slang, sexism, racism, euphemisms, and doublespeak weaken the effectiveness of language by making it less efficient and/or less acceptable.


Journal: Complete the following exercise and add it to your reflective journal.
A6: Is there ever a justifiable use for doublespeak? Why or why not? Explain your response and give some examples.


2.5 EMPHASIS STRATEGIES
Read: Management Communication: Chapter 2: Delivering Your Message: “Section 5: Emphasis Strategies”
Please read “Section 5: Emphasis Strategies” in its entirety. This section describes communication tactics that can be used to emphasize a message or parts of a message: visuals, signposts, reviews, previews, and repetition.


Journal: Complete the following exercise and it them to your reflective journal.
A7: Find an article or listen to a presentation that uses signposts. Identify the signposts and explain how they help the audience follow the article or presentation.


◦ [Optional] Listen: iTunes U: Harrisburg Area Community College, Department of English: Valerie Gray’s “Positive Emphasis and You Attitude Exercises” URL

Please scroll down the webpage to the lecture titled “Positive Emphasis and You Attitude Exercises” (8/31/09), and select “View in iTunes” to launch the lecture. Then, listen to this entire lecture (approximately 5 minutes), which describes how a good communicator uses positive language and focuses on the audience’s needs to emphasize key points in messages.



◦ 2.6 IMPROVING VERBAL COMMUNICATION URL

Watch: University of Southern California, Marshall School of Business: Sandra Chrystal’s “Executive Communication & Business Writing”
Please watch this entire video (approximately 28 minutes). This lecture supplements the reading material by refocusing his more generic approach to verbal communication on the specific challenges of communicating in a business environment in which conditions and attention can vary. Chrystal covers the same faulty language that is covered by the reading in subModule 2.5, justifying some uses while identifying how others can bury important ideas. She also provides examples from the business world of the emphasis-creating tactics covered in subModule 2.5.



◦ Watch: YouTube: Stanford University Commencement: Steve Jobs’ “Commencement Speech 2005” URL

Visit the link above to the commencement speech, and view the speech in its entirety (approximately 15 minutes).



Read: Management Communication: Chapter 2: Delivering Your Message: “Section 6: Improving Verbal Communication”
Please read “Section 6: Improving Verbal Communication” in its entirety. This section describes how to improve communication by defining your terms, choosing precise words, considering your audience, controlling your tone, checking for understanding, and adopting results-oriented approaches.


Journal: Complete the following exercises and add them to your reflective journal.
A8: Choose a piece of writing from a profession you are unfamiliar with. For example, if you are studying marketing, choose an excerpt from a book on fashion design. Identify several terms you are unfamiliar with, terms that may be considered jargon. How does the writer help you understand the meaning of these terms? Could the writer make them easier to understand?

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MODULE 3: UNDERSTANDING YOUR AUDIENCE
In this Module, you will discover how your self-awareness and how others view you influence your effectiveness as a communicator. Moreover, because of how people select, organize, and interpret words and idea results in preconceived notions and individual differences, audience analysis is also a vital part of crafting messages. This is why, in this Module, you will learn how to analyse yourself and your audience to maximize how you develop and distribute information.


3.1 SELF-UNDERSTANDING IS FUNDAMENTAL TO COMMUNICATION
Read: Management Communication: “Chapter 3: Understanding Your Audience: Introduction” and “Section 1: Self-Understanding Is Fundamental to Communication”
Please read the introduction to “Chapter 3: Understanding Your Audience” and “Section 1: Self-Understanding Is Fundamental to Communication” in its entirety. These readings focus on how you can become a more effective communicator by understanding yourself and how others view you. They also discuss the centrality of attitudes, beliefs, and values with respect to an individual’s self-concept and how self-fulfilling prophecies can influence decision making.


Journal: Complete the following exercises and add them to your reflective journal.
A9: How does your self-concept influence your writing?
A10: What does the field of psychology offer concerning the self-fulfilling prophecy?


3.2 PERCEPTION
Read: Management Communication: Chapter 3: Understanding Your Audience: “Section 2: Perception”
Please read “Section 2: Perception” in its entirety. This section explains in depth how we select, organize, and interpret words and ideas based on a perceptual framework shaped by our expectations and assumptions.


Journal: Complete the following exercise and add it to your reflective journal.
A11: How does the process of perception limit our view, or expand it? Can we choose how to perceive things?


◦ 3.3 DIFFERENCES IN PERCEPTION URL

Watch: Do the Test’s “Test Your Awareness”
View the brief, 1-minute lecture. See if you reach the same number as the narrator and then reflect on what this demonstrates about perception and communication. Consider this video in the context of the perception lectures listed above and below. How can you use your own traits to evaluate factors that contribute to self-concept? For example, if you have the perceived trait of patience, does this impact how you view yourself? How might this perceived trait impact your communication with others? The “awareness test” is a way to challenge our perceptual traits, and allow us to question those traits to gain greater self-knowledge.



◦ Watch: Dr. Don Wicker’s “Organizational Behaviour Lecture 3” URL

Please watch this entire video (approximately 4 minutes), in which Dr. Wicker reviews many of the same elements in the perceptual process as in Management Communication by using several clarifying graphics. Dr. Wicker also introduces the concept of attribution (how individuals perceive cause and effect) and revisits the “halo effect” – the self-fulfilling prophecies reviewed in subModule 3.1. After you complete the lecture, try to write a summary of the main concepts that Dr. Wicker discussed.



Read: Management Communication: “Chapter 3: Understanding Your Audience: Section 3: Differences in Perception”
Please read “Section 3: Differences in Perception” in its entirety. This brief section focuses on the individual differences and preconceived notions that can limit how well we work with others. The main point of this section is to emphasize how understanding about each other can positively impact our communication and improve the degree to which we can share and understand meaning across languages, cultures, and divergent perspectives.


3.4 GETTING TO KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE
Read: Management Communication: “Chapter 3: Understanding Your Audience: Section 4: Getting to Know Your Audience”
Please read “Section 4: Getting to Know Your Audience” in its entirety. This section presents an important table of perceptual strategies you can use to overcome some of the perceptual issues that can handicap a communicator’s ability to understand audiences – a necessary ingredient in customizing messages to be effective with specific audiences.


3.5 LISTENING AND READING FOR UNDERSTANDING
Read: Management Communication: Chapter 3: Understanding Your Audience: “Section 5: Listening and Reading for Understanding”
Please read “Section 5: Listening and Reading for Understanding” in its entirety. This brief section explains active listening and active reading and why they are important behaviours associated with effective communication


Read: Contemporary Public Speaking: “Chapter 4: The Importance of Listening”
Please read this introduction to “Chapter 4” in its entirety. This brief section explains the difference between listening and hearing and the benefits of listening in effective communication.


Journal: Complete the following exercises and add them to your reflective journal.
A12: Make a list of benefits and drawbacks to each of the listening styles discussed in the reading from “Contemporary Public Speaking”.
A13: The reading from “Contemporary Public Speaking” refers to psychological noise as one of the distractions you might experience. Identify strategies you have successfully used to minimise the impact of the specific psychological noises you have experienced.

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MODULE 4 EFFECTIVE BUSINESS WRITING
In this Module, you will explore the written word in a business context, including the important but contrastingly asynchronous elements which that communication shares with oral communication. Successful writing develops from such good habits as reading, targeted writing practice, and critical thinking and is characterized by the use of rhetorical and cognitive strategies. Accordingly, you will learn to apply appropriate styles and ethical principles in various business writing contexts while recognizing the kinds of barriers that can challenge your communication objectives and outcomes.


◦ 4.1 ORAL VS WRITTEN COMMUNICATION URL

Watch: YouTube: Communication Steroids Podcast: “Writing for the Ear”
Please watch this entire video (approximately 8 minutes), in which the hosts discuss the logic and benefits associated with adjusting writing to suit a reading or listening context. After you view the lecture, take 5-7 minutes to write a brief summary of the speaker’s main points.



Read: Management Communication: “Chapter 4: Effective Business Writing: Introduction” and “Section 1: Oral versus Written Communication”
Please read the introduction to “Chapter 4” and “Section 1: Oral versus Written Communication” in their entirety. These readings start with a review of the elements discussed in the communication models introduced in subModule 1.2, defining and exemplifying each element again to illustrate how writing for the eye differs from writing for the ear. The key concept here is that the biggest difference between those writing styles is that writing for the eye is usually asynchronous.


◦ [Optional] Listen: iTunes U: University of Southern California, Marshall School of Business: Sandra Chrystal’s “Advanced Writing for Business – Lecture 2” URL

Please scroll down to #2, select “View in iTunes,” and then listen to this entire lecture (approximately 56 minutes), which provides a more detailed review (than that in Management Communication) of business writing functions and traits and how they are explained by the commercial relationship between communicator and audience.



◦ 4.2 HOW IS WRITING LEARNED? URL

Watch: University of California Television: Gevirtz Graduate School of Education at UC Santa Barbara’s “50 Years of Research on Writing: What Have We Learned?”
Please watch this entire video (approximately 1 hour) for an exhaustive review of research on the writing process.



Read: Management Communication: “Chapter 4: Effective Business Writing: Section 2: How Is Writing Learned?”
Please read “Section 2: How Is Writing Learned?” in its entirety. This section follows the well-established recognition that the more you read and write, the better you read and write, and it adds to the discussion of the benefits of constructive criticism, critical thinking, and targeted practice as good habits most excellent writers possess.


◦ 4.3 GOOD WRITING URL

Watch: Lynda.com: Judy Steiner-Williams “Business Writing Fundamentals”
Watch all the videos in this collection. If you have not yet established a Lynda.com account (free to all University of Canberra students) please go to http://ezproxy.canberra.edu.au/login?url=http://iplogin.lynda.com and create a profile using your UC student email as your username (eg u9876543@uni.canberra.edu.au). Once you have created a profile you will need to login to Lynda.com using your username and password to access learning materials.



◦ Watch: YouTube: Dr. Steven R. Van Hook’s “Effective Writing Skills” URL

Please watch this entire video (approximately 10 minutes), which gets quickly to the point that using strong subjects, verbs, and other audience-centred sentence structures produces understanding more quickly and with less effort from audiences. After you view this video, take about 5 minutes to write a brief summary of the main ideas you learned from this lecture.



Read: Management Communication: Chapter 4: Effective Business Writing: “Section 3: Good Writing”
Please read “Section 3: Good Writing” in its entirety. This section gives you an overview of the characteristics of good writing, including an important discussion of why and how the traits of good writing promote understanding as well as a table that provides examples of how rhetorical elements and cognate strategies relate to business communication practices.


◦ [Optional] Listen: iTunes U: Harrisburg Area Community College, Department of English: Valerie Gray’s “Common Writing Errors” URL

Please scroll down the “Common Writing Errors” (8/27/09), and select “View in iTunes” to launch the lecture. Then, listen to this entire lecture (approximately 12 minutes), which addresses such writing errors as faulty agreement, passive voice, and dangling modifiers and how they can influence the effectiveness of business communication.



4.4 STYLE IN WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
Read: Management Communication: Chapter 4: Effective Business Writing: “Section 4: Style in Written Communication”
Please read “Section 4: Style in Written Communication” in its entirety. This section categorizes writing styles as colloquial, casual, informal, or formal and indicates when and where each style is appropriate.


Journal: Complete the following exercises and add them to your reflective journal.
A14: Refer to the e-mail or text message examples provided in the reading for this submodule. Would you send that message to your lecturer? Why or why not? What normative expectations concerning professor-student communication are there and where did you learn them?
A15: How does the intended audience influence the choice of words and use of language in a document? Think of a specific topic and two specific kinds of audiences. Then write a short example of how this topic might be presented to each of the two audiences.


◦ [Optional] Listen: iTunes U: Online College: Business Communication: “Week 2 Lecture” URL

Click on “View in iTunes” for this lecture. Please listen to this entire lecture (approximately 13 minutes) for an efficient review of how to edit your writing for style, accuracy, and content.



4.5 PRINCIPLES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
Read: Management Communication: Chapter 4: Effective Business Writing: “Section 5: Principles of Written Communication”
Please read “Section 5: Principles of Written Communication” in its entirety. This section applies to words many of the same concepts that were applied to language in Chapter 2: Words are governed by rules, shape reality, and have ethical dimensions (e.g., plagiarism and libel).


Journal: Complete the following exercise and add it to your reflective journal.
A16: Create a sales letter for an audience that comes from a culture other than your own. Identify the culture and articulate how your message is tailored to your perception of your intended audience.


◦ [Optional] Watch: Swinburne University of Technology: Chris Galloway’s “Public Relations Writing” URL

Please scroll down to the “Public Relations Writing” lecture, select “View in iTunes,” and then listen to this entire lecture (approximately 14 minutes). This lecture has been included in this Unit because audience-centred business writing is public relations writing. This lecture also gives you a greater appreciation for why public relations principles are business writing principles, especially when external audiences are being targeted.



4.6 OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
Read: Management Communication: Chapter 4: Effective Business Writing: “Section 6: Overcoming Barriers to Effective Written Communication”
Please read “Overcoming Barriers to Effective Written Communication” in its entirety. This section argues that to overcome barriers to communication, good writers pay attention to details, strive to understand the target meaning, consider nonverbal expressions, and make it a habit to review, reflect, and revise.

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MODULE 5: BUSINESS WRITING IN ACTION
In this Module, you will survey the most common written communication formats that represent you and your business, focusing on the content, design, utilization, and social customs associated with each format. You will become more familiar with the different elements included in each format and the functions they perform with respect to crafting messages that have specific goals and are thus tailored to influence specific audiences.


5.1 TEXT, E-MAIL, AND NETIQUETTE
Read: Management Communication: “Chapter 9: Business Writing in Action: Introduction” and “Section 1: Text, E-mail, and Netiquette”
Please read the sections for the Chapter 9 introduction and “Section 1: Text, E-mail, and Netiquette” in their entirety. These readings emphasize how your written business communication represents you and your company and thus should be clear, concise, and professional. They also discuss the etiquette and context of text messaging and e-mail, emphasizing the social customs and netiquette rules that have been established with those forms of communication, even though they are relatively new in the workplace.


◦ [Optional] Listen: iTunes U: Harrisburg Area Community College, Department of English: Valerie Gray’s “Business Etiquette – Email” URL

Please scroll down to the lecture titled “Business Etiquette – Email” (3/3/10), and select “View in iTunes” to launch the lecture. Then, listen to this entire lecture (approximately 12 minutes), which critiques e-mail practices, focusing on professionalism and avoiding emotional responses that can be misinterpreted or otherwise problematic.



◦ 5.2 MEMORANDUMS AND LETTERS URL

Watch: UpWrite Press’ “The Key Forms of Business Writing: Basic Memo” (YouTube)



◦ Watch: Helen Wilkie’s “How to Write a Business Letter, the 8 Parts” (YouTube) URL

Please watch these entire videos (approximately 5 minutes each) for additional details and to see more visuals aids that demonstrate how to write business memos and letters. After you have viewed each lecture, take about 5 minutes to write a paragraph that summarizes the main points of writing a memo and business letter.



Read: Management Communication: “Chapter 9: Business Writing in Action: Section 2: Memorandums and Letters”
Please read “Section 2: Memorandums and Letters” in its entirety. This section covers the content, format, and standard elements of letters and memos, providing a concise guide to producing professionalism in the design of each format.


Journal: Complete the following exercise and add it to your reflective journal.
A17: Create a draft letter introducing a product or service to a new client.


◦ [Optional] Listen: iTunes U: Harrisburg Area Community College, Department of English: Valerie Gray’s “Communication Process” URL

Please scroll down the webpage to the title “Communication Process” (1/14/10), and select “View in iTunes” to launch the lecture. Then, listen to this entire lecture (approximately 15 minutes), which is an important supplement to the material in Communication for Success because it relates the communication process to writing memos and letters and also emphasizes the differences between the formats.



◦ 5.3 BUSINESS PROPOSALS URL

Watch: UpWrite Press’ “The Key Forms of Business Writing: Proposals”
Please watch this entire video (approximately 8 minutes), which covers the types of proposals, the steps involved in developing them, and how to use graphics to point out important elements of content.



Read: Management Communication: “Chapter 9: Business Writing in Action: Section 3: Business Proposal”
Please read “Section 3: Business Proposal” in its entirety. This section provides instructions on how to produce a business proposal.


Journal: Complete the following exercises and add them to your reflective journal.
A18: Identify a product or service you would like to produce or offer. List three companies that you would like to sell your product or service to and learn more about them. Record your findings, making the link between your product or service and company needs.


◦ [Optional] Listen: iTunes U: Harrisburg Area Community College, Department of English: Valerie Gray’s “Proposal” URL

Please scroll down the webpage to the “Proposal” (6/11/09) lecture, select “View in iTunes” to launch the lecture, and then listen to this entire lecture (approximately 19 minutes), which reinforces this unit’s reading material.



5.4 REPORTS
Read: Management Communication: Chapter 9: Business Writing in Action: “Section 4: Report”
Please read “Section 4: Report” in its entirety. This section describes different types of reports and the writing elements they share and demonstrates how to develop your own report.


◦ [Optional] Listen: iTunes U: Harrisburg Area Community College, Department of English: Valerie Gray’s “Planning the Report” URL

Please scroll down the webpage to the “Planning the Report” (10/21/09) lecture, select “View in iTunes,” and then listen to this entire lecture (approximately 17 minutes), which reinforces this unit’s reading material.



◦ 5.5 RESUMES URL

Watch: YouTube: Rich Farina’s “Writing Your Résumé Cover Letter”



◦ Watch: YouTube: Rich Farina’s “Writing Your Résumé” URL

Please watch these entire videos (approximately 4 minutes each) to reinforce and further visualize the materials covered in this subModule. After viewing this video, take approximately 5-7 minutes to write a summary of developing a résumé and cover letter.



Read: Management Communication: Chapter 9: Business Writing in Action: “Section 5: Résumé”
Please read “Section 5: Résumé” in its entirety. This section provides the reasoning, guidance, and examples for how to create an acceptable résumé.


Journal: Complete the following exercises and add them to your reflective journal.
A19: When is a longer resume justified? Explain.


◦ [Optional] Listen: iTunes U: Harrisburg Area Community College, Department of English: Valerie Gray’s “Résumé and Cover Letter – 2” URL

Please scroll down the webpage to the “Résumé and Cover Letter” (6/24/09), select “View in iTunes,” and then listen to this entire lecture (approximately 11 minutes), which reinforces this unit’s reading material.



5.6 Sales Messages


Read: Management Communication: Chapter 9: Business Writing in Action: “Section 6: Sales Message”
Please read “Section 6: Sales Message” in its entirety. This section discusses how a sales message combines emotion and reason and reinforces credibility to create interest in a product or service that leads to a sale.

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MODULE 6: DEVELOPING BUSINESS PRESENTATIONS
In this Module, you will become more knowledgeable about the process of creating a speech and gain confidence in your organizational abilities. Preparation and organization are two main areas that, when well-developed prior to a presentation, significantly contribute to reducing your level of speech anxiety. From choosing a topic to finding and evaluating resources as well as avoiding such communication obstacles as cultural perceptions and ethnocentrism, you will become more secure in the decision-making processes that lead to effective oral presentations for a variety of audience types.


6.1 BEFORE YOU CHOOSE A TOPIC
Read: Management Communication: “Chapter 10: Developing Business Presentations: Introduction” and “Section 1: Before You Choose a Topic”
Please read the sections for the Chapter 10 introduction and “Section 1: Before You Choose a Topic” in their entirety. The key concept from these readings is that speech planning begins with knowing your general and specific purpose, your time allotment, your audience, and the amount of information you have available


6.2 CHOOSING A TOPIC
Read: Management Communication: Chapter 10: Developing Business Presentations: “Section 2: Choosing a Topic”
Please read “Section 2: Choosing a Topic” in its entirety. This section describes how choosing a speech topic involves knowing yourself and your audience; using efficient strategies; and understanding appeal, appropriateness, and ability. These are also steps that will lead to the development of an effective thesis statement.


6.3 FINDING RESOURCES
Read: Management Communication: Chapter 10: Developing Business Presentations: “Section 3: Finding Resources”
Please read “Section 3: Finding Resources” in its entirety. This section provides guidance on identifying the key points of a speech, which require supporting details from good sources. It also emphasizes the ethical way to find and use sources for a presentation, including how to avoiding plagiarism and how to evaluate sources for reliability and credibility.


6.4 MYTHS AND REALITIES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING
Read: Management Communication: Chapter 10: Developing Business Presentations: “Section 4: Myths and Realities of Public Speaking”
Please read “Section 4: Myths and Realities of Public Speaking” in its entirety. The key concept in this section is that public speaking can be as easy as holding half of a friendly conversation if you prepare for it thoroughly and produce an organized presentation sufficiently ahead of time that you can practice enough to feel comfortable and confident with the material.


[Optional] Activity: Try a creative visualisation exercise.
Choose a quiet place, sit in a comfortable position, and close your eyes. Picture yourself getting up to give your oral presentation. Picture what you want to happen – you will speak confidently, clearly, and engagingly. Your audience will listen attentively and consider the merit of your points. When you are finished, they will applaud and express appreciation for the good job you have done.


◦ 6.5 OVERCOMING OBSTACLES IN YOUR PRESENTATION URL

Watch: TED Talks: Steven Pinker “What our language habits reveal”
Watch this presentation for a view on how the words we choose can communicate more than we may consciously intend.



Read: Management Communication: Chapter 10: Developing Business Presentations: “Section 5: Overcoming Obstacles in Your Presentation”
Please read “Section 5: Overcoming Obstacles in Your Presentation” in its entirety. This section illustrates why it is necessary to avoid obstacles to understanding, such as language expressions (i.e., unknown to other listeners), cultural perceptions, and ethnocentrism.


Journal: Complete the following exercise and add it to your reflective journal.
A20: How can a speaker prepare a speech for a diverse audience? Explain and give some specific examples.

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MODULE 7: ORGANISATION AND OUTLINES
In this Module, you will return to the rhetorical situations and cognate strategies that control the development of an oral presentation. In addition, you will encounter sample speeches illustrating how content is built around a set of organizational principles and structural elements that are placed into the planning framework known as an outline. This Module also covers transitions that help the audience understand how a speaker’s main ideas are connected.


◦ Mid semester feedback This is an opportunity for you to provide feedback on the progress of the unit.



7.1 RHETORICAL SITUATION
Read: Management Communication: “Chapter 12: Organisation and Outlines: Introduction” and “Section 1: Rhetorical Situation”
Please read the sections for the Chapter 12 introduction and “Section 1: Rhetorical Situation” in its entirety. These readings focus on the elements of the rhetorical situation, which are basically the “who,” “what,” “where,” “when,” “why,” and “how” of your speech from the audience’s perspective.


Journal: Complete the following exercises and add them to your reflective journal.
A21: Is it important to consider the rhetorical situation? Provide a justification for your view.
A22: Let’s take the topic of tattoos. Imagine you are going to present two informative speeches about tattoos: one to a group of middle school children, and the other to a group of college students. How would you adapt your topic for each audience and why? Provide an example or explanation.


7.2 STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESS
Read: Management Communication: “Chapter 12: Organization and Outlines: Section 2: Strategies for Success”
Please read “Section 2: Strategies for Success” in its entirety. This section gives you an overview of the nine cognate strategies, which are widely acknowledged methods for framing, expressing, and representing a message to an audience.


Journal: Complete the following exercise and add it to your reflective journal.
A23: Does organising a presentation involve ethics? Explain your response.


◦ [Optional] Listen: iTunes U: University of Arizona: Department of Communications: Dr. Randolph Accetta’s “Presentation Strategies” URL

Please scroll down to the “Presentation Strategies” (7/6/10) lecture, select “View in iTunes,” and then listen to this entire lecture (approximately 41 minutes), which covers a variety of strategies for planning and customizing business presentations.



7.3 BUILDING A SAMPLE SPEECH
Read: Management Communication: Chapter 12: Organization and Outlines: “Section 3: Building a Sample Speech”
Please read “Section 3: Building a Sample Speech” in its entirety. This section gives you a brief overview of how speeches are built by identifying the main points to be communicated and by developing five structural elements: attention statement, introduction, body, conclusion, and residual message.


Journal: Complete the following exercises and add them to your reflective journal.
A24: By visiting the library or doing an Internet search, find a speech given by someone you admire. The speech may be published in a book or newspaper, recorded in an audio file, or recorded on video (but must have been made in English and not be a translation). It may be a political speech, a business speech, or even a commercial sales pitch. Analyse the speech using the five structural elements as this speaker has used them and include a link to the speech in your answer.


7.4 SAMPLE SPEECH OUTLINES
Read: Management Communication: Chapter 12: Organization and Outlines: “Section 4: Sample Speech Outlines”
Please read “Section 4: Sample Speech Outlines” in its entirety. This section justifies the use of outlining as part of the speech development process and provides examples of two types of outlines: one focusing on verbal and visual delivery and another on cognate strategies.


◦ [Optional] Listen: iTunes U: Northeast Mississippi Community College: Belinda Russell’s “Outlining” URL

Please scroll down to the “Outlining” (6/20/08) lecture. Select “View in iTunes” to launch the lecture, and then listen to the entire lecture.



◦ 7.5 ORGANISING PRINCIPLES FOR YOUR SPEECH URL

Watch: TED Talks, Nancy Duarte “The secret structure of great talks”
Watch this presentation that looks at the ‘common architecture’ of great talks.



Read: Management Communication: Chapter 12: Organization and Outlines: “Section 5: Organizing Principles for Your Speech”
Please read “Section 5: Organizing Principles for Your Speech. This section provides an exceptional list of 17 purpose-specific organizing patterns for business communication speeches. While the usual rhetorical strategies–based patterns are included (cause/effect, comparison/contrast, etc.)—as well as the logic-based ones (chronological, spatial, etc.)—Management Communication adds very specific step-by-step guidance for ceremonial, wedding, award, introduction, and other types of non-academic functions).


Journal: Complete the following exercise and add it to your reflective journal.
A25: Think of one technology or application that you perceive has transformed your world. Choose two organising principles and create two short sample outlines for speeches about your topic.


◦ 7.6 TRANSITIONS URL

Watch: YouTube: Expert Village: “Word Choice for Public Speaking: Using Transitional Statements in Public Speaking”
Please watch this entire video (approximately 2 minutes) to reinforce the important idea brought up Management Communication: that transitional statements inform the audience about where the speech is going and/or where it has been. After viewing this lecture, write a paragraph that summarizes the need for transitions in a speech.

Read: Management Communication: Chapter 12: Organization and Outlines: “Section 6: Transitions”
Please read “Section 6: Transitions” in its entirety. Like the preceding section, this one provides a unique approach to transitions that take the topic beyond the standard academic fare into the specific-occasion realm of business and commerce by identifying such types of transitions as clarification or concession.

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