Biomedical Sciences

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Biomedical Sciences in Nursing

Theories from the biomedical sciences have shaped nursing practice, as well as research, throughout the years. In order to engage in the highest level of practice and aid in addressing current and future issues in health care, it is important for nurses to become more cognizant of these theories.

For this Discussion, you will differentiate among theories within the basic, or pure, sciences, and consider how they may be applied to improve outcomes in health care.

Example of theories:

1) Web of causationby MacMahon and Pugh (1970) developed the concept of “chain causation,” later termed the “web of causation.”

2) The Germ Theory and Principles of Infectionby Louis Pasteur, he first proposed the germ theory in 1858

3) The Natural History of Diseasewhich refers to the progress of a disease process in an individual over time. In their classic model, Leavell and Clark (1965) described two periods in the natural history of the disease, prepathogenesis and pathogenesis (Primary prevention, secondary prevention and tertiary prevention).

4) Homeostasis Theoryby Claude Bernard, a physiologist in the 20th century who first conceived the idea of homeostasis.

5) Stress and Adaptation: General Adaptation Syndromeby Walter Canon who developed the concept of fight or flight to explain the body’s reaction to emergencies.

6) Theory of Immunity and Immune Function: the immune system comprises a complex, coordinated group of systems that produces physiologic responses to injuries or infection.

7) Genetic Principles and Theories: The Human Genome Project is an organized effort initiated in 1990 and completed in 2003 to create a biologically and medically full database of the genome structure and sequence in humans.

To prepare:

Review the concepts and principles of the various biomedical theories and models presented in this week’s Learning Resources, and consider how they influence clinical practice. Which biomedical theories and models are used most frequently in health care? How do they relate to improved health outcomes? Reflect on your specific practice area and identify at least one biomedical theory or model that is utilized.

By tomorrow 7/25/17, post 550 words essay in APA format with 3 references from the list below, that include the level one heading as numbered below:

post a cohesive response that addresses the following:

1) Describe one biomedical theory or model frequently used in health care and provide your rational for how it relates to improved patient outcomes.

2) Describe one biomedical theory or model that is utilized in your specific practice area. (I’m a CRITICAL CARE CARDIOVASCULAR NURSE). Provide at least two examples related to its application

Required Readings

McEwin, M., & Wills, E.M. (2014). Theoretical basis for nursing. (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health.

Chapter 15, “Theories from the Biomedical Sciences”

Chapter 15 highlights some of the most commonly used theories and principles from the biomedical sciences and illustrates how they are applied to studies conducted by nurses and in nursing practice.

Chapter 16, “Theories, Models, and Frameworks from Administration and Management”

Chapter 16 presents leadership and management theories utilized in advanced nursing practice.

Amella, E. J., & Aselage, M. B. (2010). An evolutionary analysis of mealtime difficulties in older adults with dementia. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19(1/2), 33–41. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.02969.x

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 48 research studies that examined mealtime difficulties in older adults with dementia.

Frazier, L., Wung, S., Sparks, E., & Eastwood, C. (2009). Cardiovascular nursing on human genomics: What do cardiovascular nurses need to know about congestive heart failure? Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing, 24(3), 80–85.

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

This article discusses current genetics research on the main causes of heart failure.

Mahon, S. M. (2009). Cancer Genomics: Cancer genomics: Advocating for competent care for families. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 13(4), 373–3 76.

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

This article advocates for nurses to stay abreast of the rapid changes in cancer prevention research and its application to clinical practice.

Mayer, K. H., Venkatesh, K. K. (2010). Antiretroviral therapy as HIV prevention: Status and prospects. American Journal of Public Health, 100(10), 1867–1 876. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.184796

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

This article provides an in-depth examination of potential HIV transmission prevention.

Pestka, E. L., Burbank, K. F., & Junglen, L. M. (2010). Improving nursing practice with genomics. Nursing Management, 41(3), 40–44. doi: 10.1097/01.NUMA.0000369499.99852.c3

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

This article provides an overview of genomics and how nurses can apply it in practice.

Yao, L., & Algase, D. (2008). Emotional intervention strategies for dementia-related behavior: A theory synthesis. The Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 40(2), 106–115.

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

This article discusses a new model that was developed from empirical and theoretical evidence to examine intervention strategies for patients with dementia.

Optional Resources

Calzone, K. A., Cashion, A., Feetham, S., Jenkins, J., Prows, C. A., Williams, J. K., & Wung, S. (2010). Nurses transforming health care using genetics and genomics. Nursing Outlook, 58(1), 26–35. doi: 10.1016/j.outlook.2009.05.001

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Lea, D. (2009). Basic genetics and genomics: A primer for nurses. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14(2), 1–3.

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Matzo, M. (2009). Evidence for excellence: Medication for dementia. AJN, American Journal of Nursing, 109(9), 73–7 4.

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (2010). Ten leading causes of death and injury. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/LeadingCauses.html

Healthy People 2020—Improving the Health of Americans. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/default.aspx

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